¿Cuántos gramos de proteína son asimilables en cada comida? Mito o realidad.

¿Cuántos gramos de proteína son asimilables en cada comida? Mito o realidad.

Si tienes unos mínimos conocimientos de nutrición deportiva sabrás que existe una creencia extendida sobre que el cuerpo sólo es capaz de absorber cierta cantidad de proteína por comida, en concreto 30gr es la cifra más utilizada. Ciertamente esto coincide con otra de las reglas igualmente extendidas, comer 5 o 6 veces al día para mantener el metabolismo elevado, pero vamos a profundizar un poco más para ver si realmente hay un límite en la asimilación de proteína y cual sería.

   Voy a utilizar un ejemplo práctico, dos sujetos de 80 kilos, a los cuales suministro la misma cantidad diaria de proteína (150gr) el primero la toma dividida en 5 comidas, (30gr de proteína por comida) mientras que el otro la toma toda junta. Si realmente el cuerpo solo puede asimilar 30gr por comida el segundo sujeto habría tomado 30gr en todo el día y en cuestión de poco tiempo no se tendría en pie, por lo tanto queda claro que el cuerpo humano es más inteligente de lo que algunos piensan.

Se han hecho muchos estudios sobre los niveles y velocidad de absorción de diferentes fuentes proteicas, aunque la mayoría de los métodos utilizados no se pueden considerar 100% fiables. Es cierto que la utilización de proteína por el cuerpo puede variar en función de la masa muscular, pero no podemos generalizar como muchas personas han hecho tras interpretar el trabajo de investigación realizado por Moore, donde se recoge que el máximo efecto anabólico se consigue con una dosis de 20 gramos. En ese caso, 20gr en 6 comidas supondrían 120gr. ¿Nos tratan de vender que aproximadamente 100 – 120gr es el máximo de proteína asimilable por el cuerpo al día para propiciar el crecimiento muscular? Simplemente me limito a afirmar que eso es MENTIRA.

Para desafiar este estudio tenemos el de Arnal, quien en una prueba de 14 días, no encontró diferencias en la masa magra o la retención de nitrógeno entre consumir aproximadamente 30 o 60gr de proteína por comida. Además cuando se aplicó este protocolo a sujetos de edad avanzada se concluyó que a medida que envejecemos podría ser necesaria más proteína para conseguir el mismo efecto.

Hay estudios que afirman que el cuerpo es suficientemente inteligente para administrar cualquier cantidad de proteína, siempre que esta no supere el máximo diario (entre 1.5 y 4g/kg desde el aficionado al culturista), las proteínas están en constante síntesis (principalmente en el hígado), lo que ocasiona una pérdida de nitrógeno en forma de urea, cuando el balance nitrogenado es positivo la ingesta supera a las perdidas, como puede ser en épocas de crecimiento o embarazo, mientras que si el balance es negativo la ingesta es inferior a las pérdidas, véanse casos de desnutrición o anorexia.

Como conclusión, no podemos suponer que el cuerpo sólo puede asimilar una cantidad exacta de este nutriente nitrogenado por comida, si existe un límite de asimilación por comida, pero este no es 20, ni 30 gramos. Además no todas las proteínas son iguales (existen proteínas completas como el suero de leche, carne de ternera, pollo, pavo o pescados, y proteínas incompletas como las que proceden de granos, semillas, frutos secos o verduras).

Se inteligente, juega con la ingesta de proteína correctamente los días que entrenas y si es necesario modifica esas cantidades los días que no entrenas de acuerdo a tus gustos y tolerancia digestiva. Te recomendaría que te asesores bien antes de consumir glutamina o aminoácidos ramificados, estos últimos pueden ser esenciales (histidina, valina, leucina, isoleucina, lisina, metionina, fenilalanina… o no esenciales (tirosina, glicina, alanina, cisteína, serina, glutamina, arginina…)

Ten en cuenta el valor biológico de la proteína y no olvides que consumir 20 claras de huevo y 5 pechugas de pollo de golpe no te va a llevar a ser el próximo Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Diplomada en Educación Física.
Doble Grado en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte y Nutrición Humana y Dietética.
Entrenadora Personal con certificación profesional.
Master en Fisicoculturismo y Fitness (IFBB y FEFF) además de múltiple formación en otras diplomaturas, idiomas y especializaciones relacionadas con el sector, esta profesional del sector centra su trayectoria en el mundo deportivo hace más de 10 años, y cuenta con la experiencia y talento necesarios para ayudar a cualquier persona a conseguir su objetivo, como entrenadora y deportista conoce lo difícil que es lograrlo sin la ayuda de un profesional cualificado.

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