Aprende a leer y entender las etiquetas de los alimentos

Aprende a leer y entender las etiquetas de los alimentos

¿Realmente sabemos interpretar las etiquetas nutricionales de los productos que consumimos?. Conocer lo que contienen los alimentos que nos llevamos a la boca y determina directamente la salud es fundamental y en muchas ocasiones desgraciadamente se interpreta de manera errónea. A continuación encontrarás la guía definitiva para que no te engañen, para buscar los alimentos que realmente merecen la pena y para entender definitivamente lo que nos quieren esconder.

No sabemos lo que comemos, las empresas parecen no querer explicarlo y los consumidores no molestarse en entenderlo. Tenemos pánico a alimentos manipulados o a ciertos aditivos que parece que supondrían el desastre de la humanidad, además, desgraciadamente la legislación permite que el etiquetado de los productos en muchas ocasiones sea más complejo de descifrar que la lengua más desconocida.

Tópicos

  • 100% Natural ¿Significa sin sustancias químicas? NO
  • Sin azúcares añadidos, ¿Significa sin azúcar? NO
  • Si indica «integral» ¿Se supone que todo el producto lo es? NO, es suficiente con que contenga un porcentaje ínfimo.

¿Qué índica una etiqueta nutricional?

La finalidad de una etiqueta nutricional es que el consumidor haga un uso responsable, orientar sobre el consumo de hidratos de carbono, azúcares, fibra, sal, grasas, etc. Estoy segura que un etiquetado más claro supondría tomar mejores decisiones e incluso podría incidir sobre los niveles de sobrepeso de nuestro país. La información de la etiqueta nutricional de un producto está regulada por la UE, quien dice que debe figurar;

  • la lista de ingredientes en orden de mayor a menor peso en el producto.
  • Alérgenos, como gluten, cacahuetes, leche… y con un tamaño mínimo de letra de 1,2mm (la mitad de lo que se exige a medicamentos)
  • Fecha de consumo preferente o caducidad, el primer concepto se refiere a cuando el producto conserva aún todas sus propiedades, mientras que el segundo quiere decir que a partir de ese día su consumo ya es peligroso.
  • País de origen o lugar de procedencia, en productos como miel, frutas, hortalizas, pescado, aceite o carnes.
  • Información nutricional, incluyendo las calorías por cada 100gr o ml y la cantidad diaria recomendada. Además las grasas, hidratos, proteína y demás especificaciones. Esta información no era obligatoria hasta diciembre de 2016.

propiedades nutricionales del te

¿En qué nos debemos fijar principalmente?

  1. Hidratos de carbono y azúcar: Debemos mirar el contenido total de hidratos de carbono y a continuación fijarnos en el azúcar. El azúcar es siempre hidrato de carbono, pero no siempre los hidratos de carbono tienen que ser azúcar. Deben tener el menor contenido posible de azúcar y cuidado con la fructosa que se anuncia como saludable y podría no serlo tanto.
  2. Grasas: debemos mirar el total y a continuación las que son saturadas, estas son más perjudiciales que las no saturadas pero de las que debemos huir radicalmente es de las grasas trans que en los ingredientes suelen aparecer como “parcialmente hidrogenadas».
  3. Proteína: según el tipo de producto que sea debemos revisar que no lo anuncien como “alto en proteína” cuando realmente no lo es.
  4. Cuidado con los aditivos, pueden tener varios nombres y suelen ser una «E» seguida de números. Si está en 100… es colorante, 200… conservante, 300…antioxidante, 400… espesante/estabilizante, 500… regulador de la acidez, 600… potenciador del sabor.
  5. Sal y sodio: El sodio es el componente principal de la sal, una cifra que debemos tener en cuenta, especialmente cuando tratamos de reducirla. Si un alimento tiene 100gr de sodio implica que tiene unos 250gr de sal. Se considera alto 1 gramo de sal o más por cada 100 gramos o 500 mg de sodio o más por cada 100 gramos. Se considera bajo 0.25 gramos de sal o menos por cada 100 gramos o 100 mg de sodio o menos por cada 100 gramos.

Los valores diarios recomendados son estimados en dietas de 2000kcal, por lo tanto no podemos generalizar a todos ya que cada persona tiene diferentes necesidades calóricas. Si quieres un consejo aliméntate de comida que nuestros antepasados pudieran haber reconocido, cuanto más natural mejor, un pescado, carne o verdura no necesita una lista de ingredientes, ¿verdad?

información nutricional rufless al jamon

¿Cómo cambian las palabras y enmascaran cosas para engañarnos?

Afortunadamente sabemos que el azúcar es una sustancia de la que debemos huir, por tanto los esfuerzos de la industria por ocultarlo son cada vez mayores. Lo puedes encontrar bajo múltiples nombres como, fructosa, dextrosa, glucosa, lactosa, galactosa, jarabe de maíz, azúcar invertida, jarabe de arce… cualquiera de estos puede hacernos saber que estamos tomando azúcar o sustancias aun peores.

Para disimularlo en muchas ocasiones incluso lo dividen, diciendo que aportan 5gr de azúcar, 5gr de jarabe de maíz y 5gr de glucosa, en total, los mismo 15gr de azúcar pero menos visibles.

En otros casos enmascaran las propiedades diciendo los valores por 200ml cuando la botella contiene 500ml, ¿Cuántas personas se paran a hacer cuentas antes de comer?

Además de cambiar las palabras es muy común ver la palabra “libre de grasas trans” o “sin azúcar” simplemente porque si no se llega a unos valores determinados la normativa permite ponerlo, no significa que no lo contengan.

Los productos light

Por términos generales un producto puede denominarse light si contiene un 30% menos de calorías que su equivalente no light. La forma de reducir estas calorías suele ser quitando ingredientes naturales y sustituyéndolos por otros probablemente de mucha peor calidad. Generalmente eliminan la grasa, quitándole por tanto el sabor, que para aportárselo de nuevo le añaden todo tipo de espesantes e hidratos de relleno.

Veamos un ejemplo:

Yogurt habitual, contiene: leche entera pasteurizada y cultivos lácteos.

Yogurt desnatado (Vitalínea 0%) contiene: leche descremada pasteurizada, maltodextrina, saborizante, sorbato de potasio, crema pasteurizada de vaca, sólidos de leche, almidón modificado, etc.

¿Sigues pensando que la versión light es mejor?

Saber interpretar estos datos te ayudará a entender la información de las etiquetas de los alimentos, de manera que tus platos serán más sanos y contribuirán a cuidar tu organismo. Después de todo la alimentación y el ejercicio son los grandes determinantes de la salud, esta comienza en el supermercado y continúa en la cocina.

Si te has quedado con ganas de más o aun tienes dudas ponte en contacto conmigo.

María José García
Sígueme!
Últimas entradas de María José García (ver todo)

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