Anemia, ¿Qué tenemos que hacer?

Anemia, ¿Qué tenemos que hacer?

Hay personas que todavía hoy en día asocian tener anemia a «falta de peso», cuando se pone ante ellos alguien con sobre peso que tiene anemia se miran sorprendidos diciendo, «No puede ser, si no está tan delgado!» Cambia el chip, la anemia no es sinónimo de delgadez, sino generalmente de mala alimentación y precisamente por eso las personas con sobrepeso están perfectamente expuestos a padecerla.

¿Qué le ocurre al cuerpo?

Se considera que tenemos anemia cuando disminuye la concentración de hemoglobina en sangre, esta hemoglobina es la encargada de transportar oxígeno, por tanto las personas con anemia no tienen suficiente. Necesitamos determinadas vitaminas, minerales y nutrientes para producir suficientes glóbulos rojos, teniendo en cuenta esto los problemas pueden surgir a causa de una mala o insuficiente alimentación, pérdida importante o prolongada de sangre, problemas con la absorción de nutrientes, algunos medicamentos, enfermedades prolongadas… En definitiva, si sufres anemia tu cuerpo no recibe suficiente sangre rica en oxígeno.

¿Cómo la detectamos?

Si la anemia es leve puede que ni siquiera te des cuenta, puedes detectar palidez debido a la vasoconstricción (cierre de vasos sanguíneos) o astenia. Cuando la situación se agrava puedes sufrir dolor de cabeza, problemas para concentrarte o incluso mareos, uñas muy frágiles, disnea (dificultad para respirar), alteración de las menstruaciones, etc. Para confirmar una anemia es necesario como mínimo demostrar la concentración de hemoglobina en sangre disminuida mediante un hemograma.

¿Cómo la tratamos?

El tratamiento va a depender del tipo y gravedad de anemia que padezcas y la causa que la provoque, puede incluir desde transfusiones de sangre, medicamentos, suplementos de hierro, vitamina B12 o vitaminas, o solucionarse con un “simple” cambio de hábitos alimenticios.

¿Qué tipos de anemia podemos padecer?

Podríamos hacer múltiples clasificaciones, me voy a decantar por una clasificación fisiopatológica, es decir, según aquello que la produce.

  1. En España la anemia más generalizada es por falta de hierro, ANEMIA FERROPÉNICA. Ocurre cuando el cuerpo no tiene suficiente hierro para producir hemoglobina, haciendo por tanto que las células rojas de la sangre reduzcan su tamaño. Tienen más predisposición a sufrirla los niños ya que no suelen consumir suficiente hierro en su dieta o las mujeres que tienen periodos menstruales abundantes.
  2. Anemia por DEFICIENCIA DE VITAMINA B12, lo que ocurre en nuestro cuerpo en este caso es que se producen glóbulos rojos de gran tamaño, dificultando a los vasos sanguíneos su absorción. Cuidado, el problema puede no ser que no tomemos suficiente vitamina B12, sino que nuestro estómago no sea capaz de absorberla. Este tipo de anemia llamado, ANEMIA PERNICIOSA, puede solucionarse con inyecciones de vitamina B12 que van directamente al torrente sanguíneo.
  3. ANEMIA APLÁSICA, por una deficiencia en la médula ósea, donde se producen los glóbulos rojos. En muchas ocasiones este tipo de anemia se produce por inhalación prolongada de vapores industriales o efectos secundarios de medicamentos y su recuperación dependerá de lo dañada que se encuentre la médula.
  4. ANEMIA HEMOLÍTICA del recién nacido, se caracteriza por una destrucción masiva de glóbulos rojos debido a la incompatibilidad sanguínea madre-feto. Por suerte hoy en día esto se detecta antes del parto y se toman las medidas oportunas.
  5. ANEMIA HEREDITARIA O CONGÉNITA, (talasemia) se define como el defecto en la producción de hemoglobina. Podemos encontrar diferentes tipos y sin profundizar en exceso en ellas, debo destacar que pueden llegar a causar la muerte del feto a las pocas horas del nacimiento, generar ictericia (piel amarillenta), esplenomegalia (hígado y bazo de mayor tamaño), incluso algunas deformidades. El tratamiento para este tipo de anemia es el trasplante de células madre por parte de un donante compatible.
  6. ANEMIA EN EL EMBARAZO, bastante frecuente debido a los cambios que sufre la mujer, puede ser de varios tipos, la anemia causada por el aumento de volumen de sangre, (anemia gravídica). Anemia por déficit de hierro como en una persona no embarazada (anemia ferropénica) y Anemia por déficit de ácido fólico o vitamina B12 (megaloblástica). Este tipo de anemias pueden no ser nada preocupantes o llegar a generar defectos congénitos graves en el bebé.

Ahora que hemos aprendido y desmentido ciertas leyendas sobre la anemia, cuida mucho tu alimentación y tu salud para evitar sufrirla y si la has padecido o estás pasando por ella en estos momentos no dudes en compartir tus consejos.

María José García
Sígueme!
Últimas entradas de María José García (ver todo)

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